The state of Jharkhand became a functional reality on November 15, 2000 after almost sixty years of people's movements around the Jharkhandi identity. Located on Chhota Nagpur plateau and Santhal Parganas, it has evergreen forests, rolling hills and rocky plateaus with many places of keen beauty.
The name "Jharkhand" comes from the Sanskrit word Jharikhanda, which is the ancient name of the region`s dense forest. It is said the region already had a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadh Empire, and the name has also been referred to in the Bhavishya Purana (around 1200 AD). Among the earliest rulers of this land were tribals, of whom some, like the Munda Rajas, continue to thrive till today.
During Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara and after 1765, it came under control of the British Empire. The subjugation of Jharkhand region by the Britishers resulted in spontaneous resistance from local people. The region witnessed a series of repeated revolts by the tribal populace against British colonial regime.
The people in Jharkhand have the advantage of being culturally vibrant, as reflected in the diversity of languages spoken, festivals celebrated, and variety of folk music, dances, and other traditions of performing arts.
|Area||79,714 sq km|
|Official Languages||Hindi, Santali, Ho, Mundari, Kuduk, Nagpur, Sadri, Karmali, Urdu, Bangla and Odia|
Jharkhand Share borders with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east.
Jharkhand Is Unique In The Celebration Of Fairs And Festivals Due To Its Rich Tribal Culture. Various Religious Fairs And Festivals Celebrated Throughout Jharkhand. Barura Sharif, Belgada Mela Simaria, Bhadli Mela Itkhori, Chatra Mela, Kolhaiya Mela Chatra, Kolhua Mela Hunterganj, Kunda Mela Pratappur, Kundri Mela Chatra, Lawalong Mela, Rabda Sharif, Sangat And Tutilawa Mela Simaria Are Some Of The Prominent Fairs And Festivals Of Jharkhand. Important Festivals Of Hindus Celebrated In Jharkhand Are Holi, Diwali, Dashhara And Ramnavami. Other Festivals Like Basant Panchami, Chath, Jityya Bhaiya Duj, Etc. Are Also Celebrated In The State. Specific Festivals Of The Tribes In Jharkhand Are Karma, Manda, Sarhul, Jani Shikar Etc.
Sarhul Is Celebrated During The Spring Season When The Shaal Trees Get New Leaves. Sarhul Festival Is The Worship Of The Village Deity Who Is Considered To Be The Protector Of The Tribes. The Deities Are Worshipped With Shaal Flowers. The Shaal Flowers Represent The Brotherhood And Friendship Among Villagers. The Priest Is Called Pahan And He Distributes Shaal Flowers To Every Villager. The Prasad Is Then Distributed Among The Villagers.
Karam Devta The God Of Power, Youth And Youthfulness Is Worshipped During The Festival. The Festival Is Held On The 11th Day Of The Phases Of Moon In The Bhadra Month. The Groups Of Young Villagers Go To The Jungle And Collect The Items Required For Puja I.e. Wood, Fruits And Flowers. During This Entire Period People Sing And Dance In Groups. The Entire Valley Seems To Be Dancing With The Drumbeats. This Is One Of The Rare Examples Of Such A Vital And Vibrant Youth Festival In Jharkhand's Tribal Area. At The Same Time, The Unmarried Young Tribal Girls Celebrate The Jawa Festival. This Is Held Mainly In Expectation Of Good Fertility And Better Household. The Unmarried Girls Decorate A Small Basket With Germinating Seeds. It Is Believed That The Worship For Good Germination Of The Grains Would Increase The Fertility. The Girls Offer Green Melons To The Karam Deity As A Symbol Of 'son' Which Reveals The Primitive Expectation Of Human Being, I.e. Grains And Children. The Entire Tribal Area Of Jharkhand Becomes Tipsy During This Time.
This Festival Is Mostly Seen In The Area Between Bundu, Tamar And Raidih Area Of Jharkhand. Tusu Is A Harvest Festival Held During The Winter In The Last Day Of Poush Month. It Is Also For The Unmarried Girls. Girls Decorate A Wooden/ Bamboo Frame With Colored Paper And Then Contribute It To The Nearby Hilly River.
Hal Punhya Is A Festival Which Begins With The Fall Of Winter. The First Day Of Magh Month, Known As "akhain Jatra" Or "hal Punhya", Considered As The Beginning Of Ploughing. The Farmers, To Symbolize This Auspicious Morning Plough Two And Half Circles Of Their Agricultural Land This Day Is Also Considered As The Symbol Of Good Fortune.
This Festival Comes Between The Period Of Spring And Summer. Among The Tribal People Of Jharkhand This Festival Is Best Known As The Worship Of Budha Baba. People Fast During The Day And Carry The Bathing Pahan The Priest, To The Tribal Mandir Called Sarana Mandir. The Pahan Sometimes Called Laya, Gets Out Of The Pond, The Devotees Make A Chain, Locking Their Thighs With Each Other And Come Forward To Offer Their Bare Chest To Laya For Walk Over. After The Worship In The Evening, Devotees Take Part In Dynamic And Vigorous Chhau Dance With Lots Of Gymnastic Actions And Masks. The Next Day Is Full Of Primitive Sports Of Bravery. The Devotees Pierce Hooks On Skin And Get Tied At One End Of A Long Horizontal Wooden Pole, Which Is Hanging On The Top Of A Vertical Shal Wood Pole. The Height Goes Up To 40 Feet. The Other End Of The Pole Which Is Connected With A Rope Is Pulled Around The Pole By The People And The Tied Devotee Display The Breath-taking Dance In The Sky. This Festival Is More Popular In The Tamar Region Of Jharkhand.
This Festival Is Perhaps The First Festival Of Jharkhand In The Calendar Year. It Is A Festival Of Sowing Seeds In The Field. Farmers Start Sowing Seeds From This Day But There Is No Dance Or Song Like Other Tribal Festivals But Just A Few Rituals. There Are Some Other Festivals Like Rajsawala Ambavati And Chitgomha Which Are Also Celebrated With Rohin.
Bandana Is One Of The Most Famous Festivals Celebrated During The Black Moon Month Of Kartik (kartik Aamavashya). This Festival Is Mainly For The Animals. Tribals Are Very Close With Animals And Pets. In This Festival, People Wash, Clean, Paint, Decorate Feed Well And Put Ornaments To Their Cows And Bulls. The Song Dedicated For This Festival Is Called Ohira Which Is An Acknowledgement For Animal's Contribution In Their Day-to-day Life. The Belief Behind This Festival Is Animals Are Integral Part Of Life And Have Souls As Human Being Do. The Most Exciting Day Of The Bandana Week Is The Last Day. Closured Bulls And Buffalos Are Chained To A Strong Pole And They Are Attacked With A Dry Animal Hyde. The Angry Animals Hit The Dry Skin With Itchier Horns And The Crowd Enjoys. Generally The Colors Used For Decorating Animals Are Natural Colors And This Artwork Is Of Folk Type.
This Mela Is Held At The Time Of Falgun Shivratri And Is Marked By A Big Sale Of Cattle.
It Is An Ancient Fair Held Twice In A Year During Magh Basant Panchami And Chait Ramnaumi Respectively. There Is A Beautiful Lake And Ancient Temple Of Goddess Kali On The Top Of The Hill. Its Origin Is Not Known. It Is Only A Religious Fair.
This Mela Is Said To Have Started From 1882 And Is Principally A Cattle Fair Held During Durga Puja.
The Probable Year Of Its Origin Is 1930 And Is Held On Kartik Purnima And Is Principally A Cattle Fair.
The Probable Year Of Origin Is 1925. It Is Held On Magh Basant Panchami And Is Principally Cattle Fair.
Jharkhand Culture Is Rich And Diverse And As A Result Unique In Its Very Own Way. Jharkhand Culture Treats Guests As God And Serves Them And Takes Care Of Them As If They Are A Part And Parcel Of The Family Itself. Archaeologists Have Unearthed Pre-harappa Pottery, Pre-historic Cave Paintings And Rock-art From Various Parts Of Jharkhand. That Hint At Ancient, Cultured Civilizations Inhabiting These Parts. The Intricate Woodwork, The Pitkar Paintings, Tribal Ornaments, Stone Carvings, Dolls And Figurines, Masks And Baskets, All Are Pointing Towards The Cultural Wealth Of Jharkhand Existed Even Before The Harappa Age. Among The Most Delicate, Fragile, Beautiful And Threatened Indigenous Tradition Of India Are For Example, The Kohvar And Sohrai Paintings, Which Are Sacred, Secular And Relevant To A Woman's World. This Is The Part Practiced E
The Jharkhandi Cuisine Is Traditional And Combination Of Various Locality In Jharkhand Region. Some Are Traditional And Others Are Adopted From Mixed Culture Of Adjoining Areas. As India Is Famous For Monsoon And Its Beautiful Quarterly Seasons; Mainly Winter, Summer And Rain, That Brings Variety Of Cuisines With Itself. But, There Are Some Major Cuisines Those Are Used In All The Seasons Such As Rice, Roti, Daal, Tarkari And Sweets.
In General, The Food Cooked In Jharkhand Is Considered To Be Very Light On The Stomach And Easy To Digest. This Fact Can Very Well Be Demonstrated By The Nature Of Jharkhand Food Habits That Have Been Imbibed By The Native Folks. Litti And Chokha Also Form An Important Portion Of Jharkhand Food. The Mouth-watering Non-vegetarian Jharkhand Food Preparations Like Spicy Chicken Are Also Popular With A Considerable Section Of Jharkhand. The Cuisine Mainly Associated With This State Also Bears A Faint Touch Of The Robust Mughals Which Is Vividly Visible In The Food Of Jharkhand.
Jharcraft Brings You The Primordial Handicraft Of Dhokra, An Art-form Handed Down Through The Generations. Dhokra Metal Art Reflects The Creativity Of Life In Its Varied Forms. From The Pre-historic Period, The Rana And Certain Communities Of Jharkhand Have Been Making The Metal Visions In Bronze And Copper. Directorate Of Hand-loom, Sericulture And Handicraft, Department Of Industry, Government Of Jharkhand, In Associations With "kalamandir", Jamshedpur Got The Metal Craftsmen Together And Started A New Era Of Dhokra. Jharcraft Has Extended Full Marketing Support To The Group. Today Dhokra Metal Images And Ornaments Are Made In The Same Way As It Was Done In The Past. Though The Process And Style Has Remained Very Traditional, Kalamandir Has Given A Finish To Their Skills. Dhokra Artisans Create Their Imaginations In Clay With Conventional Design And Patterns. They Use Dhuna, Risen From The Bark Of Tree, Heated With Cold Tar To Make Wax Threads And Tapes For Ornamentation On Clay Sculpture. For Filler, Bronze Or Copper Is Liquefied Along With Zinc And The Molten Metal Is Poured In. Burning Off The Wax, The Liquid Metal Takes The Shape Of The Model. Knocking Off The Dried Clay Outcomes The Dhokra Metal Handicraft. Acclaimed The World Over, The Artistic Metal Forms Are An Aesthetic Delight For The Purest As Well As For The General Collector Of Folk Art. Dhokra Art Is The Metallic Manifestation Of Primitive Simplicity Caste In Instinctive Forms And Cared By Jharcraft. It Is Also Practiced In The Neighboring States Sharing Common Political Boundaries And Similar Cultures. It Is Basically A Brass-work (metal Craft) Done By The Malhore Castes Of The State. Brass Is A Combination Of Copper And Zinc. The Artisans Of Jharkhand Practice The Traditional "lost Wax Technique" To Craft Their Imaginations. They Use Wax, Resin And Firewood From The Forests, Clay From The Riverbed And Make The Firing Oven In A Hole Dug In The Ground. Through The Craft The Artists Present The Different Aspects Of Life. Steps Involved In Making Dhokra Art Preparing A Mould Out Of Wet Earth, Or With Lac Or With A Combination Of Bee Wax, Sal Resin And Dhuna. Required Design Is Then Hand Created On The Mould With Bee-wax And Lac. It Is Then Again Covered With Wet Earth. It Is Bind With Iron Wire. Again A Layer Of Earth Is Put On The Mould. A Hole Is Made In The Mould. It Is Then Heated. The Heating Process Melts The Wax Or The Lac, And The Liquid Brass Is Filled In The Mould Through The Hole. The Mould Is Then Left To Cool Down. The Artwork Is Then Obtained By Breaking The Mud Mould. After Cleaning And Buffing The Product Is Supplied To The Stores. The Motifs Used Are Generally Taken From The Nature. Elephants, Turtles, Etc Are Made At Large In Dhokra Craft. The Images Of Various Deities Are Also Crafted By The Artisans Of The State. Five Clusters Of Dhokra Have Been Developed Within The State. They Are In Hazaribagh, Khunti, Singhbhum East, Ramgarh And Dumka Districts. Some Artisans Are Also Producing The Craft In The Bundu Area. Jharcraft Has Prepared A Module For The Forward And Backward Linkage For The Craft Under One Roof In Urban Haat, Hazaribagh. The Whole Value Chain Is Fully Supervised By The Professional Employees Of Jharcraft. Jharcraft Provides All Possible Support For Group Formations, Trainings, Raw Materials, Design Assistance, & Marketing Of The Produce Of The Artisans. With Help Of The Master Craftsmen & Designers, More Than 500 New Designs In This Craft Have Been Prepared. This Is Supervised By Craftage Consultant. During The 34th National Games Jharcraft Had Supplied Around 14,000 Mascots (chauua) Which Were Prepared Fully By The Artisans. It Was A Great Success Story For The Artisans As They Were Recognised And Appreciated By All For Their Efficiencies As Well As Timely Delivery With Perfection. Earlier The Mass Production Was Not Done By The Artisans As Each Piece Is Separately Crafted But At The Present Dates The Mass Production Is Easily Being Monitored And Is Possible. Today This Art Is A Source Of Livelihood For Many Of The People Of The State. Not Only The Malhore Caste Is Involved But Other Tribal And Minor Communities Including Women Are Being Trained For Making The Craft So As To Meet The Rising Market Demand Of The Products. Today 130 Craftsmen Are Involved In This Craft. The Regular Demand And Supply Helps To Generate Regular Income For The People In The Rural Areas. The Artisans Earn 5000-8000 Rupees Per Month Which Has Brought Positive Changes In The Lives Of People. Earlier The Artisans Who Were Involved In The Craft Were Nomads. Today They Have A Settled Life. They Can Rent Houses, Buy Property, Send Their Children To Schools, Fulfil Their Necessities, And Live A Respectable Life In The Society. The Artisans Are Also Provided With Health Facilities And Online Payment Facilities. Direct Bank Payments Of Their Remunerations Have Made Their Lives More Comfortable.
"everything That Obliterates Into Dust... .........is Given Birth In Form Of A New Creation By Mother Earth." Jharcraft Has Given A New Form To The Loam In Form Of This Craft. Jharcraft Is Not Only Making Decor Items And Mementoes Of Terracotta But Has Also Added A New Chapter In The Jewellery Market. Teracotta Dinner Sets And Tea Sets Are A New Addition To This Diversified Craft. The Speciality Of These Utensils Is That These Are Lead-freeand Are Free From The Hazardous Colour Pigments Which May Be Harmful For The Health. These Are Eco Friendly Products, Which Are Being Developed In The Bundu Cluster And Are Being Supervised By The "adhaar Mahila Samiti". In Addition The Black Potteries Of Jasidih Area Are Also Being Developed.
Jharkhand Is A Natural Reservoir Of Bamboo. Since Ancient Period, The Bamboo Is Being Used To Make Day To Day Products Like Baskets, Vase, Tokri And Other Handicrafts. Jharcraft Has Engaged Itself In Producing Bamboo Based Products In An Organised Manner. To Protect The Bamboo From Insects, Jharcraft Has Also Established A Bamboo Treatment Plant In Mansumaria In East Singhbhum. Today, Jharcraft Is Producing Bamboo Based Sofa Sets, Beds, Lifestyle Products, Jewelries And Bamboo Houses. Jharcraft Is Also Producing Incense Sticks As A Bamboo Based Craft. "jeevika Agarbatti" Is Being Sold Through The Jharcraft Emporiums In 4 Different Fragrances. Clusters Of High Quality Cane Furniture Are Also Being Developed. Hazaribagh "urban Haat" Is Engaged In Producing Designer Furniture Of Cane. Good Quality Solid Cane (without Hollow) Sourced From Indonesia, Philippines, Andaman Makes The Products More Durable Compared To Local Products. Jharcraft Is Producing Cane Furniture And Small Utility & Show Pieces Of Bamboo. Recently It Has Started Making Bamboo Furniture Mainly Moulded Furniture Of Bamboo. These Bamboo Furnitures Can Be Dismantled And Transported To Long Distances.